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A Level     Communication     Cell Phones     FDM     Infrared     >Media<     TDM    

Communication Media


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  A Level    Communication  0 of 35    Question 791    Celular Networks 
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Deadline not set13 of 35    Question 1066    Generalised Communication System 
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Deadline not set31 of 35    Question 920    Transmission Media 
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Transmission Media

Optical Fibre

Instead of sending radio signals down cables, light flashes can be sent down optical fibres.

Media-Fibre.jpg Attribution

Media-fibre-diagram.gif

Advantages

Disadvantages

Total Internal Reflection

Fibre optics rely on a physics phenomenon called Total Internal Reflection. The same effect makes gems sparkle. Surfaces under water that trap air look silvery. Lake mirages in the desert are yet another example. In the diagram above, the light beam is trapped in the inner core of glass. Like this, light can travel long distances and go round corners too.

Attenuation

Latency

This is how long it takes for a signal to travel from the sender to the receiver. On TV interviews, the latency or delay becomes noticeable if satellite or slow internet links are being used.

Dispersion

Attenuation, Dispersion and Latency

Radiation


Cable

Advantages

Disadvantages


Wire

Normal wire is fine for DC circuits. As soon as the frequency goes above a few hundred hertz, normal wire begins to act like an antenna and signals leak out of or into the cable. This is already a problem with audio frequencies. This leakage is called cross-talk. The solution is to use co-axial cable.

Coaxial Cable

Media-Coaxial-Cable.gif

Media-Waveguide.jpg


Open Wire Transmission Line

Media-Open-Wire.jpg

Here is some open wire co-axial cable capable of handling megawatt transmitter powers.

Media-Open-Wire-Co-Ax.jpg


Twisted Pair

Media-Twisted-Pair.jpg


Wireless - Mobile Communication

Free Space

Radio Waves / Electromagnetic Radiation will travel through free space (Air or a vacuum).

Advantages

Disadvantages

Air

Ultrasound transducers are used to send and detect signals sent through air.

Normal sound is used too but suffers more from interference due to natural background noise.

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