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AS Level     >Op Amp<     Delta Lux     Gain     Schmitt Astable     Schmitt Trigger     Virtual Earth     Voltage Follower    

Op Amp


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Operational amplifiers have a very high open loop gain, a high input impedance and a low output impedance.

Amplifiers increase the magnitude of the input signal.

With this amplifier, the output voltage is bigger and it's inverted.

Inverting Amplifier Gain

Amplifiers have one or more of the following properties.

The 741 Operational Amplifier

Data Sheet

741 Op Amp Pin Connections

Pins

  1. Offset Null - Rarely used. It can be used to to adjust for small errors in the two inputs so zero volts in gives zero volts out.
  2. Inverting Input - If this voltage goes up, the output voltage will go DOWN unless the Op Amp is already saturated.
  3. Non-Inverting Input - If this voltage goes up, the output voltage will go UP unless the Op Amp is already saturated.
  4. The minus supply - Sometimes this is connected to zero volts ( ground ).
    Sometimes it's connected to a voltage between -5V and -18V or more for a few specialised op amps.
  5. Offset Null - Rarely used. It can be used to to adjust for small errors in the two inputs so zero volts in gives zero volts out.
  6. The Output - In an ideal Op Amp, the maximum and minimum output voltage is equal to the power supply voltages.
    In a real life Op Amp, these voltages are 2 to 3 Volts less.
  7. The plus supply - Voltages from +5V to +18V are common.
    There are specialist and more expensive Op Amps with a higher voltage ratings.
  8. No Connection - This pin is not used.

The 741 is a low cost operational amplifier. It has ...

It can be used to make ...

Feedback Resistors >= 1k and <= 1M

Operational Amplifier Ideal and Typical Properties

Characteristics Ideal Real - Depends on the model
GAIN: Open Loop Infinity > 100000 or 1000000 typical
Input Resistance: (Impedance) Infinity > 1M (Bipolar) > 1000M (FET)
Output Resistance: (Impedance) Zero 100 - 1000R
SATURATION High:
Highest Output Voltage
Positive Power Supply Voltage

Typical value = 12 V.

Two volts below the positive supply

Typical value = 10 V.

SATURATION Low:
Lowest Output Voltage
Negative Power Supply Voltage

Typical value = -12 V.

Two volts above the negative supply

Typical value = -10 V.

Gain Bandwidth Product: Infinity 1 - 20MHz
Input offset voltage: Zero Often Adjustable to Zero
 

 

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