|AS Level Basics Kirchoff >RMS< Thevenin|
In AC circuits, measurements are usually in RMS instead of Peak.
230 Volts RMS Alternating Current (AC) has the same heating effect as 230 Volts Direct Current (DC).
Alternating voltages (sine waves) have an average voltage of zero because they spend equal times above and below the zero volt line.
Clearly it's not useful to say the AC mains supply voltage is zero.
Vrms = Vpeak / √2 ≈ 0.707 Vpeak ≈ 0.7 Vpeak
Vpeak = √2 Vrms ≈ 1.414 Vrms ≈ 1.4 Vrms
Irms = Ipeak / √2 ≈ 0.707 Ipeak ≈ 0.7 Ipeak
Ipeak = √2 Irms ≈ 1.414 Irms ≈ 1.4 Irms
The mains supply in Europe is 230 Volts RMS. The peak voltage is 325 Volts and the peak-to-peak voltage is 650V.
P = E / t = I V = V2 / R = I2 R Use RMS values if you need RMS power.
Prms = 0.5 Ppeak
Ppeak = 2 Prms
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