A decoupling capacitor removes unwanted AC signals by shorting them to ground.
Microphone Amplifier Example
In this circuit, V+ is 12 Volts
The op amp input on pin 3 is held at 6 Volts (average) by a Voltage divider circuit.
It's important for this 6 Volt level to be held steady.
The 100 µF capacitor smooths the 6 Volt line by shorting any AC signals to ground.
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