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Input: An alternating electric current.
Output: Pressure waves in air. These are sound waves.
Speakers have a moving coil suspended in a strong magnetic field. When alternating currents flow in the speaker's moving coil, forces are produced which cause the paper cone to vibrate in step with the alternating currents. The paper cone movements cause the surrounding air to move and sound waves are produced.
This diagram shows the structure of a speaker. Its structure is identical to a moving coil microphone but the speaker is much bigger and able to handle large currents to make loud sounds.
Loudspeakers emit sound when an alternating current passes through them. The air pressure waves produced by the speaker are proportional to the current flowing through the speaker.
Loudspeakers are ...
The "empty boxes" delay and channel the energy from behind the speakers, almost doubling the bass output towards the audience.
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